A Student Grammar of Spanish by Ron Batchelor

By Ron Batchelor

This concise advent to Spanish grammar, designed for English-speaking undergraduates, assumes no past wisdom of grammatical terminology. It explains each one element of Spanish grammar and gives a variety of enticing workouts to problem scholars. sincerely geared up into thirty devices, protecting diversified facets of grammar, the booklet capabilities as a necessary reference advisor and a complete workbook. person subject matters might be regarded up through a uncomplicated cross-referencing procedure, and concise definitions are supplied in an invaluable thesaurus of grammatical phrases. The workouts are compatible for either lecture room use and self-study.

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El plural de ingl´es es ingleses When all twenty nouns have been dealt with, the teacher/instructor will call the class together to discuss findings. 1 Compound nouns Usually, the first noun is put in the plural but the second noun may also take a plural s, although this is less frequent, and would even sound strange if, for example, the last word of the following expression had an s: un veh´ıculo todo terreno, veh´ıculos todo terreno. It should be added that, since compound nouns and their pluralization are a comparatively recent linguistic phenomenon, hard and fast rules are still difficult to come by, and Spanish speakers hesitate themselves, so we are in good company.

There is some limited comfort for females with a feminist tendency in the following: the feminine form modista can mean “male fashion designer” but modisto is in current use. However, strange as it may seem, un desnudo has to be masculine, as in French and Italian. Does this say anything about the Latin psyche? Or does the noun simply refer to the painting or sculpture? Perhaps it is the latter. On the other hand, a male film star has to be feminine: una estrella. 2 The neuter gender i The neuter form of the article, lo, is not applicable to nouns since all nouns are masculine or feminine.

3 Same noun but different meaning according to the gender A number of Spanish nouns are both masculine and feminine, but have different meanings which are sometimes related. This phenomenon, common to all Romance languages, really does test our memory. e. 4 Problem genders The gender of the following words is especially liable to confusion, particularly if you have studied, or are studying, French and/or Italian. Please have sympathy with the present author. i Words ending in e: M auge avance cauce declive enchufe fraude peine s´ındrome timbre boom, highest point advance (river) bed/course slope, incline electrical plug, influence fraud comb syndrome bell, postage stamp (in M) F base cat´astrofe gripe higiene ´ındole mole pir´amide sede base catastrophe flu, bad cold hygiene nature, character mass, bulk pyramide see, seat (of government) ii Words ending in al: M cereal zarzal F cereal bramble, thicket cal central espiral multinacional postal sal se˜nal sucursal lime power station, telephone exchange, head office spiral multinational postcard salt sign branch (office) iii Words ending in ante and ente: M ante componente paciente suede, elk component patient (but can be feminine) F constante mente patente pendiente simiente constant mind patent slope seed 23 A STUDENT GRAMMAR OF SPANISH iv Words ending in z: M aprendiz avestruz c´aliz matiz pez (alive) regaliz F faz hoz lombriz perdiz tez apprentice, learner ostrich chalice hue, shade (of meaning) fish licorice surface, face sickle, gorge worm partridge complexion v A number of feminine words: armaz´on bilis c´arcel circular crin flor l´ıbido frame (work) bile prison circular horse’s mane flower libido metr´opoli miel sangre sien tos tribu v´ıctima metropolis honey blood temple (on head) cough tribe victim ´ can be masculine.

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