By Ken Howard; Dubravka Pokrajac
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Extra resources for Advanced simulation and modelling for urban groundwater management : UGROW
UGROW (UrbanGROundWater) represents one of the most advanced, fully integrated, urban groundwater models produced to date. 2 WHAT HYDROGEOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS ARE UNIQUE TO URBAN GROUNDWATER SYSTEMS? The development of UGROW was inspired by the premise that urban groundwater systems have unique characteristics, which make the development of a specialized groundwater modelling tool necessary. These characteristics are explored here. g. those in Chilton et al. (1997, 1999); Howard and Israfilov (2002); Tellam et al.
E. e. the ‘coupling’ approach. Challenges in urban groundwater modelling 19 Examples of these approaches are provided below. The adaptation approach As an example of the adaptation approach, Visual Modflow has recently been used to investigate the potential impacts of urban growth in the Greater Toronto Area, southern Ontario, Canada (Howard and Maier, 2007). The study area – the Central Pickering Development Lands, better known as the Seaton Lands – is part of the Duffins Creek Drainage Basin, a catchment comprehensively studied and modelled with MODFLOW by Gerber and Howard (1996, 2000, 2002) in an effort to understand the hydrogeological behaviour of the Newmarket Till aquitard.
Short-lived sources will form plume fragments which will migrate through the aquifer, increasing in volume but reducing in concentration as they move. Discharges will often be small in quantity compared with other recharge sources, but in some cases will contribute significant amounts of contaminant. g. Tellam and Thomas, 2002) – a distribution which rarely reaches a steady-state concentration, and is often difficult to relate with any precision to sources. In some cities, industrial sites are clumped, and hence pollution from discharges is also effectively clumped.