By Donald R. Griffin (auth.), René-Guy Busnel, James F. Fish (eds.)
Thirteen years have passed by because the first foreign meet ing on Animal Sonar platforms used to be held in Frascati, Italy, in 1966. in view that that point, nearly 900 papers were released on its topic. the 1st symposium was once important because it used to be the place to begin for brand spanking new study strains whose objective used to be to layout and improve technological platforms with homes coming near near optimum organic platforms. there were hugely major advancements when you consider that then in all domain names on the topic of organic sonar structures and of their appli cations to the engineering box. The time had consequently come for a multidisciplinary integration of the knowledge amassed, not just at the evolution of structures utilized in animal echolocation, yet on platforms idea, habit and neurobiology, signal-to-noise ratio, overlaying, sign processing, and measures saw in sure species opposed to animal sonar platforms. sleek electronics know-how and structures thought that have been constructed in basic terms considering that 1974 now let designing refined sonar and radar structures making use of rules derived from organic platforms. on the time of the Frascati assembly, built-in circuits and technol ogies exploiting machine technological know-how weren't good sufficient built to yield benefits now attainable via use of real-time research, resulting in, between different issues, a definition of aim temporal char acteristics, as organic sonar structures may be able to do. All of those new technical advancements necessitate shut co operation among engineers and biologists in the framework of recent experiments which were designed, fairly long ago 5 years.
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Extra info for Animal Sonar Systems
A similar experiment was conducted under water with T. ). These results might be expected if during or following original learning it was primarily the presence of dist inct ive echo characterist ics from the positive or reinforced target which controlled responding and not the distinctive echo characteristics of the negative or nonreinforced targets or the echo characteristics which both positive and negative targets had in common. However, the results are surpris ing if it is understood BEHAVIORAL METHODOLOGY IN ECHOLOCATION 33 that during and following original training both positive and negative targets were equally or nearly equally effective in controlling discriminative performance (Mackintosh, 1974).
In earlier experiments Sven had been trained to report the presence of a target by hitting the A manipulandum and the absence of a target by hitting the B manlpulandum. 14 m from the surface of the water and to make a B report in the absence of a target. , the vertical positions of the bronze targets were initially always closer to the surface of the water than the steel targets. The vertical position of the bronze targets gradually approached that of the steel targets until eventually all targets were presented in the same position.
Once established. the degree of stimulus control by an echo complex can be tested or probed by presenting novel targets and finding out the degree to which targets contain similar echo configurations (Hammer. 1978). In general. experimenters using porpoises in studies of echolocation have used traditional psychophysical methods to arrive at threshold estimates. Observing Response In an early experiment on discriminative echolocation with different sized spheres (Turner and Norris. 1966). a blindfolded dolphin had to deflect a lever corresponding to the standard sphere in order to collect a fLsh which was thrown to a specific "zone" or area of the pool.