Apple machine language by Don Inman

By Don Inman

If you happen to already recognize easy and feature entry to 1 of the preferred Apple types, you are in your method to constructing genuine services at the topic. The booklet combines colour, photos, and sound with straight forward demonstrations that can assist you learn-FAST. you will begin easily, utilizing easy statements like POKE, PEEK< and contact to go into and execute desktop language courses. Then you will strengthen a uncomplicated working approach, coming into and executing your computing device language courses from there. your next step could have you utilizing an Apple procedure video display to software without delay and keep the time frequently had to interpret easy statements. ultimately, you will methods to use the Apple Mini-Assembler to prevent the problematic info concerned with direct computer language programming. All in a couple of, speedy stages-you'll be shocked at how basic it's!

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After you press the RETURN key, the variable A is assigned the same value that S was assigned. This is done so that the starting address is saved as S. Meanwhile A is used as a working address. It changes to tell the computer which address to POKE successive data into. 6 .. B=6 from your input PRESS RETURN TO ENTER PROGRAM- - - A=768 after RETURN is pressed Second We will next have the Operating System print each address in turn and wait for you to enter a two-digit hexadecimal code for either an instruction code from your machine language reference or a byte of hexadecimal data.

Binary Places 23 22 2' 2° 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 Decimal Equivalent 0+0+0+1 = 1 0+0+2+0 = 2 0+4+0+0 = 4 8+0+0+0 = 8 Using combinations of these place values, we may obtain any decimal value from o through 16 or any HEX value from 0 through F. Examples: 0101 =22 1010 =2 3 1100 =2 3 1101 =2 3 + i= 4 + 1 = 5 decimal and also 5 HEX + 21 =8 + 2 =10 decimal which is A HEX + 22 =8 + 4 = 12 decimal which is C HEX + 22 + 2° =8 + 4 + 1 =13 decimal which is D HEX Let's now take a closer look at how we may express any 8-bit binary number by two HEX digits.

Thus, our 8-bit instruction may be represented by a 2-digit HEX number by breaking the byte (8 bits) into two parts (nybbles). f}:; \ 0111 =7 HEX 1101 or =D HEX Therefore: The hexadecimal number system has 16 symbols (0,1 ,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,A,B, C,D,E,F). The relationship of decimal, binary, and HEX values is shown in the following table. Decimal Binary HEX 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 0000 0001 0010 0011 0100 0101 0110 0111 1000 1001 1010 1011 1100 1101 1110 1111 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F 13 14 15 48 o 00 OCALL me 15, CALL me 1111, or CALL me F - they all 000 0000 represent the same thing.

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