By W. Buckel, B. Stritzker (auth.), S. T. Picraux, E. P. EerNisse, F. L. Vook (eds.)
Conferences were held long ago on atomic collision phenomena and at the purposes of ion beams to semiconductors. notwithstanding, in the earlier 12 months it turned obvious that there's a starting to be new zone of energetic study regarding using ion beams to switch and research the elemental houses of metals. consequently a topical convention used to be prepared to collect for the 1st time scientists with quite a lot of backgrounds and pursuits concerning this box. This booklet comprises the continue ings of the foreign convention on functions of Ion Beams to Metals which was once held in Albuquerque, New Mexico, October 2-4, 1973. a lot of the paintings awarded herein represents rules and ideas that have had very little earlier publicity within the open literature. the appliance of ion beams to superconducting prop erties for instance is kind of new, as is the bankruptcy on ion brought on floor reactions, along with essentially oxidation and corrosion experiences of implanted fabrics. those parts, in addition to the bankruptcy on implantation alloy formation, point out very important destiny components of the appliance of ion beams to metals. A analyzing of the chapters on superconductivity and on oxida tion and corrosion can serve to carry one modern on approximately the entire latest info in those components of the ion beam mod ification of metals. A vast standpoint of the oxidation region is given within the invited paper through G. Dearnaley.
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In this case the actual impurity concentration is overestimated. However, this approach might give the concentrations with the same relative accuracy at least for one sample if the same implantation technique is repeatedly used. • If the tar~et thickness is chosen large enough, all ions will come to rest within the target, but the condition of homogeneity is no longer satisfied. In this work the maximum ion energy was kept sufficiently low to deposit most impurities within the target film. Inhomogeneity over dimension§ smaller than the superconducting coherence length (about 500 A for the highly doped films) is expected to be less effective on the superconducting properties.
Because of the slightly larger interaction between interstitials and dislocations compared with the interaction between vacancies and dislocations, the interstitials precipitate preferentially at dislocations, whereas the vacancies agglomerate into voids (Fig. 1). The large voids show a broad maximum in the void size distribution at a diameter of ° for a 900°C irradiation of pure niobium with 10 ppm oxyge~ 280 A (Fig. la), whereas the small voids have a sharp peak around 30 A with a density of 2 x 10 16 cm- 3 , which is a factor of 40 greater than for the large voids.
This volume plnning force is (in high K superconductors) directly proportional to J B. The equation describes quite adequately the observed beh~vior of the critical current. Above H l' the fluxoids penetrating into the superconductor form a regijlar lattice that, due to the mutual electromagnetic repulsion among the fluxoids, becomes rapidly more rigid as the fluxoids approach each other. Consequently, the elastic constants rapidly increase above Hc1 with field, and the volume force Pv decreases, because the obstacles are prevented from acting with their maximum pinning force p • Below H 2' p depends on the flux density causing a les~a~ronounced f~eldmax dependence of J , even though the fluxoid lattice becomes softer again; the shea~ modulus in a plane perpendicular to the fluxoids vanishes(ll).