Diseases of coral by Cheryl M. Woodley, Craig A. Downs, Andrew W. Bruckner, James

By Cheryl M. Woodley, Craig A. Downs, Andrew W. Bruckner, James W. Porter, Sylvia B. Galloway

Coral ailment is readily changing into a situation to the overall healthiness and administration of the world’s coral reefs. there's a nice curiosity from many in keeping coral reefs. regrettably, the sphere of epizootiology is disorganized and lacks a regular vocabulary, equipment, and diagnostic suggestions, and tropical marine scientists are poorly knowledgeable in flora and fauna pathology, veterinary medication, and epidemiology. Diseases of Coral will support to rectify this example.

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Diseases of coral

Coral sickness is readily changing into a predicament to the health and wellbeing and administration of the world’s coral reefs. there's a nice curiosity from many in holding coral reefs. regrettably, the sector of epizootiology is disorganized and lacks a typical vocabulary, tools, and diagnostic options, and tropical marine scientists are poorly proficient in flora and fauna pathology, veterinary drugs, and epidemiology.

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16 Strength of evidence of causality for a ­specific disease/putative causal factor relationship increases as more of the rules can be applied successfully. Statistical Association and Causality The first three of Evans’ rules require the association between a hypothesized causal factor and the disease in question to be s­tatistically significant. This involves comparing groups, rather than investigating only individuals. 17 The logical reduction of proof requires that the mechanism of induction of a disease by a cause needs to be explained by describing the chain of events, from cause to effect, at the molecular level (ultimately to mechanisms of adverse changes in nucleic acids), corresponding to a “deeper” level of understanding than that offered by statistical association (Lower 1983).

Hypotheses and scientific laws are special cases of theories. , is of low “testedness”), is of low generality, and constitutes a supposition or conjecture that is testable by being refuted (Popper 1959). Initial formulations of theories of the cause of disease therefore involve hypotheses. For example there are three hypotheses con­ cerning what triggers outbreaks of aspergillosis in sea fan corals: (i) local or atmospherically transported contaminated dust; Diseases of Coral, First Edition. Edited by Cheryl M.

Thus some people continued to believe that smoking was beneficial because it “cleared the chest,” even after Doll (1959) provided evidence that it induced lung cancer. The method of tenacity is unsatisfactory because it disregards the opinions of others, and, if they are considered, provides no framework for choosing between them. Authority Sometimes appeal is made to a highly respected source to sub­ stantiate views. First, this may involve an appeal to an allegedly infallible source. This is for instance the basis of religious beliefs.

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